Please respond to these 3 questions and cite only the book, “Core Questions in P

Please respond to these 3 questions and cite only the book, “Core Questions in Philosophy” by Elliot Sober.
Be thorough, logical, fair, clear, reflective and civil.
Part A): Respond to the following prompts.
1) How does Aristotle explain what virtue is and how we come to posses it? Discuss proper functioning, human development, and of course, The Golden Mean. Why does Aristotle think that virtue and character should be the primary focus in ethics? Why is becoming a virtuous person so good and so important for realizing the ultimate good, the ultimate goal, the very fulfillment of being fully and properly human: “eudaimonia” (human flourishing)? Cite Sober.
2) A subjectivist would say there is no truth about character, about how MLK Jr., for example, was more virtuous than Adolf Hitler. The subjectivist would say there is no truth regarding whether MLK Jr. did or did not, whether Hitler did, or did not, posses vices.
Aristotle vehemently opposed subjectivism. Aristotle would say that a subjectivist who believed that there is no objective, true difference between Hitler and MLK Jr. is an unreliable thinker and lacking in virtue him/herself, since critical and logical reasoning and observation, and virtue, would clearly lead you to say that Adolf Hitler lacked key virtues (e.g., fairness, wisdom) and possessed numerous vices (e.g., bigotry, resentment, greed, wrath, impatience, folly) and that MLK Jr IN FACT (not opinion) possessed, and behaved in accordance with, various virtues: e.g., patience, courage, wisdom, fairness, kindness, generosity.
Aristotle would also say this: Another truth in ethics is that no mortal human who can function with others is totally vicious. If a human was totally always vicious, they would be a “monster” (Aristotle uses the word “beast”) and they would not be able to live and function with others. So the truth about us is this: we are all mixed; we have in us a mix of vice and virtue, according to Aristotle. So Aristotle would say that MLK Jr. was not 100% always virtuous in every context; none of us are perfectly virtuous. Nonetheless, the point is this, the truth is (according to Aristotle): MLK Jr. showed more virtue than Hitler and MLK Jr. showed less vice than Hitler; and, critical, logical thinking and observation reveals this (note the word reveal here; Aristotle is a realist; since a realist believes truth exists in ethics, it is a matter of revealing it and not just fabricating it arbitrarily as mere opinion).
3) What’s your view on this? Is Aristotle correct? Are there at least a couple of truths about virtue and vice that we humans can grasp using critical thinking and observation regarding patterns of dysfunctional and functional behavior? Or do you side with the subjectivist who says “there are no truths at all about vice and virtue, no truths about well-being, no truths about dysfunctional or functional humans”? Is the subjectivist correct in saying there is no objective, true difference when it comes to saying that MLK Jr. was less vicious than Hitler, and that MLK Jr. was a more fully developed, more wise and more fair person than Hitler? Dig deep into this; support your position with thorough and substantive critical thinking.

Leave a Reply